10 risks for those sitting 8 - 10 hours per day
In recent years international research on Sedentary behavior (inactivity) has increased dramatically and there is growing evidences, as stated below, that a multitude of serious health risks may be connected to "prolonged" and "excessive" sitting. A variety of studies warn that sedentary lifestyles are likely to be causing as many deaths as smoking.
1) Cardiovascular Health - (Heart Disease, Circulation & Blood pressure)
2) Cancer
3) Diabetes (Type 2)
4) Weight Gain
5) Metabolic Syndrome
6) Mental Health
7) Back/Neck Pain
8) Muscle Degeneration
9) Osteoporosis
10) Mortality
Recent posts
1) Cardiovascular Health (Heart Disease, Vascular Function, Circulation & Blood Pressure)
•  Two hours per day of screen time and sitting time were linked with a 5% and 17% increased risk of cardiovascular events, respectively. Source - 72

•  Regarding older adults, although there might be an association between overall sitting and TV viewing and a higher risk of blood pressure. Source - 81
2) Cancer
• It has been suggested that an important underlying mechanism by which sitting increases cancer risk is adiposity (excess body weight) which might facilitate carcinogenesis through insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, increased level of sex hormones and altered secretion of adipokines. Source - 76.
3) Diabetes (Type 2)
• A positive association between sedentary behavior and type 2 diabetes has been reported among adults, independent of physical activity. People who watched TV for more than 2 hours a day had a 20% increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Source -38.
4) Weight Gain
• In 2015 researchers found a positive association between sitting and body composition, heart fat, liver fat, visceral fat, and waist circumference independent of physical activity - Source - 7, 69.
5) Metabolic Syndrome
• Approximately 25% of European, American and Canadian adults have metabolic syndrome. Source- 73
6) Mental Health
• 31% increased risk for developing a mental disorder has been linked to adults who engage in 42 hours of watching TV and/or using the computer per week when compared with those who do so for less than 10.5 hours per week. Source - 93.
• High amounts of sitting might be associated with a higher risk of psychological distress. Source - 43. Similarly, among overweight/obese adults, decreasing sedentary time and increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were associated with a reduced risk of depression. Source - 2

• Inactive mid-aged women who sat more than 7 hours a day were three times as likely to have depressive symptoms compared with women who sat up to 4 hours a day AND were physically active. Source- 98.
7) Back/Neck Pain
• Sitting time has been positively associated with both low back pain and neck-shoulder pain intensity among blue-collar workers. Source - 101, 116. When asked to interrupt their sitting at work every 30 min during the day, overweight/obese office workers showed a 32% reduction in lower back discomfort, compared to seated work. Source - 3
8)  Muscle Degeneration
• Age-related declines in muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) often have a negative impact on the independence of the elderly, increasing their risk of falling. When sedentary our locomotor muscles are inactive most of the day.
• Older adults watching TV at least 6 hours a day might have poorer grip strength compared to those who engage in less than 2 hours of TV watching a day. Source - 44.
• Stair climbing, for example, results in greater muscle activity than brisk walking, as do standing and walking compared with sitting. Source - 45
9) Osteoporosis
• Some specific sedentary activities (screen-based) are negatively associated with bone health in youth. This relationship between screen-based time and bone health is independent of the total amount of physical activity, but not independent of the frequency of muscle strengthening and vigorous activities. Frequent, short bouts of such activities (muscle strengthening and vigorous activity) interspaced with periods of sedentary behaviours appear to be beneficial. Source - 118.
10) Mortality
• Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with a 13% increased risk. Source - 38.
• The association between sitting and all-cause mortality among older adults (over 60 years old) has also been supported by evidence. Source - 81.
• Replacing one hour of sitting with low exercise activities such as household chores, garden work and daily walking were sufficient to reduce all-cause mortality by 30%. Exercise reduced the same risk by 48%. Source - 4
• Replacing sedentary time with equal amounts of sleeping (in people who sleep less than 7 hours/day) and standing had beneficial effects. Source - 120.
• Sedentary behaviour has been associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality of up to 24%-49%. Source -36, 37.
• The risk of all-cause mortality might be lowest in standing/walking occupations, especially among women. Source - 106.
• Both maintaining sitting time low and reducing it was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality in American post-menopausal women. Increasing standing time among Australians aged 45 and above seemed to lower the risk of all-cause mortality. Source - 110, 111.
Growing international scientific research evidence concludes that excessive and prolonged sitting (irrespective of your level of physical activity) can lead to increased 10 risks for those sitting above 8 - 10 hours per day as stated below with evidences.
• Sedentary behavior has been associated with an increased risk of cancer , endometrial cancer , colon cancer and breast cancer. Source - 37
• Although both body-mass index (BMI) and physical activity might be attenuating the link between sedentary behavior and some types of cancer, researchers still suggested adults (aged 50-71) who watched TV for at least 7 hours a day had a 22% increased risk of cancer mortality relative to those who watched TV less than one hour a day. Source - 40 ,77.
• Regularly interrupting sitting with activity bouts of slightly more than one minute every 30 minutes of sitting might be more effective than a single 30 minute walking in lowering postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Source - 103.

• Light-intensity physical activity breaks, but not standing, was associated with significant reductions in postprandial (after meal) blood glucose and insulin levels. Source - 102.
• Interruptions of sitting time with standing and stepping were associated with lower BMI scores and waist circumference. Source - 95.
• Researchers suggested that watching TV might lead to obesity among children and teenagers. However, factors such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity might contribute to this association. Source - 74
• Metabolic syndrome has been defined as central obesity (waist circumference) plus any two of the following four risk factors: raised blood pressure, raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and raised fasting plasma glucose.
• Men and women who sit more might have up to a 73%-76% increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome compared with those who sit little, regardless of activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Source - 1

• A similar association has been reported for children and youth. Source - 71, 74.
• Screen time has also been associated with a higher risk of depression when exceeding 2 hours/day and a lower risk when screen time was less than 2 hours a day among children and adolescents. Source - 115.
• In terms of occupational health, lower back pain is the number one cause of disability and one of the major risk factors for absenteeism. Source - 61.
• However, there is currently insufficient evidence for a link between occupational and screen-based sitting and musculoskeletal pain, independently of other factors, among both children and adults.
Source - 61, 74.
• Osteoporosis is particularly important in the context of an ageing population. Prolonged sitting might be a risk factor for bone health in women, even in those who are physically active. How sedentary time is accumulated might also be important: the longer (rather than the more frequent) the sitting bouts, the higher their deleterious effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Source - 51.
Recent posts
Replace office chair with Exercise Ball chair
Replace idle office chair with Exercise Ball chair to stay fit
Replace idle office chair with Exercise Ball chair to stay fit
Its all about how you Sit and Stay fit
Exerciseballchair.net